A Position on the Islamic Concept of Citizenship and Muslim Minorities
This article offers an individual scholar’s interpretation of the concept of citizenship and Muslim minorities from the perspective of Islamic law. The issues to be discussed are: 1. The classical Islamic legal view of a ‘division’ of the world and its affects on these concepts. Can we put aside these concepts? Are European countries today still to be considered dar al-harb or dar al-kufr or rather dar al-ahd or dar al-aman? 2. What is the meaning of ‘citizenship’ and ‘religious minorities’ in a Muslim territory? 3. Are Muslims permitted to accept ‘residence permits’ and citizenship in non-Muslim countries? And finally 4. Should Muslims who live in European countries be referred to as ‘minorities’ or ‘citizens’?