AbstractThe consumption of halal (lawful) and ṭayyib (wholesome) food is an obligation for Muslims. Today, the food we eat consists of ingredients and additives that come from all over the world. The result is that even simple food products like bread are the result of complex international halal food supply chains. Next to the many food scares, which also expose halal food chains, fraud with halal labels is rampant in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries.
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